Result

jQuery

//class="color-***"にマッチするclass名を全部削除
$("#hello").removeClass (function (index, css) {
    return (css.match (/\bcolor-\S+/g) || []).join(' ');
});

css

.color-red{color:red;}

html

<div id="hello" class="color-red color-brown foo bar">Hello</div>

via

JQuery removeClass wildcard